Hecuba, the largest morpho, with a wingspan of up to 20 cm (7.9 in). Hecuba size comparison with. Portis ) The closed wings of this morpho butterfly are damaged, allowing some of the blue to show. Illustrations edit see also edit references edit le moult (E.) réal (P.) (196263). Les Morpho d'Amérique du sud et Centrale (Editions du cabinet entomologique. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter ( link ) " Morpho fabricius, 1807" at Markku savela's Lepidoptera and Some Other Life forms lamas,. (Ed.) (2004) Checklist: Part.
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More famous is Maria sibylla merian, who was not wealthy. The people along the rio negro in Brazil once exploited the territorial habits of voyage the blue morpho (. Menelaus ) by luring them into clearings with bright blue decoys. The collected butterfly wings were used as embellishment for ceremonial masks. Adult morpho butterflies feed on the juices of fermenting fruit with which they may also be lured. The butterflies wobble in flight and are easy to catch. Didius ventral side: Predatory birds aim their attack at the most prominent feature, the ocelli, missing the body entirely. Peleides, note the symmetric notches left by a bird beak. Polyphemus, one of several "white morpho" species. Rhetenor this museum specimen is used for education, but thousands are killed for domestic displays, sold to tourists or in gift shops.
Papered specimens are sold with the brief abdomen removed to prevent its oily contents from staining the wings. Significant quantities of live specimens are exported as pupae from several neotropical countries for exhibition in butterfly houses. Unfortunately, due to their irregular flight pattern and size, their wings are frequently damaged when in captivity. Host plants edit morpho larvae, variously according to species and region, feed on Leguminosae, gramineae, canellaceae, guttiferae, erythroxylaceae, myrtaceae, moraceae, lauraceae, sapindaceae, rhamnaceae, euphorbiaceae, musaceae, palmae, menispermaceae, tiliaceae, bignoniaceae, and Menispermaceae. According to penz and devries 4 the ancestral diet of larval Satyrinae is poaceae or other monocots. Many morphos have switched to dicots on several occasions during their evolutionary history, but basal species have retained the monocot diets. Collectors edit a morpho butterfly collection Morpho butterflies, often very expensive, have always been prized by extremely wealthy collectors. Famous collections include those of the london jeweler Dru Drury and the dutch merchant pieter teyler van der Hulst, the paris diplomat georges rousseau-decelle, the financier Walter Rothschild, the romanov grand duke nicholas mikhailovich of Russia and the, english and German respectively, businessmen James John. In earlier years, morphos graced cabinets of curiosities " Kunstkamera " and royal cabinets of natural history notably those of Tsar of Russia peter the Great, the austrian empress Maria theresa and Ulrika eleonora, queen of Sweden.
The caterpillar molts five times before entering the pupal stage. The bulbous chrysalis is pale green or jade green and emits a repulsive, ultrasonic sound when touched. 14 lab It is suspended from a stem or leaf of the food plant. 15 The adults live for about two to three weeks. They feed on the fluids of fermenting fruit, decomposing animals, tree sap, fungi, and nutrient-rich mud. 16 They are poisonous to predators due to toxins they sequestered from plants on which they fed as caterpillars. The more common blue morphos are reared en masse in commercial breeding programs. The iridescent wings are used in the manufacture of jewelry and as inlay in woodworking.
13 Predators include royal flycatchers, jacamars and other insectivorous birds, frogs, and lizards. Behavior edit morphos have a very distinctive, slow, bouncy flight pattern due to the wing area being enormous relative to the body size. Lifecycle edit The entire lifecycle of the morpho butterfly, from egg to death, is about 115 days. Caterpillars Pupae and emerging adult The larvae hatch from pale-green, dewdrop-like eggs. The caterpillars have reddish-brown bodies with bright lime-green or yellow patches on their backs. Its hairs are irritating to human skin, and when disturbed it secretes a fluid that smells like rancid butter from eversible glands on the thorax. The strong odor is a defense against predators. They feed on a variety of plants.
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Deidamia the females are partially iridescent, but less blue than the males. Habitat edit morpho butterflues inhabit the primary forests of the Amazon and leisure Atlantic. They also adapted to breed in a wide variety of other forested habitats for instance, the dry deciduous woodlands of Nicaragua and secondary forests. Morphos are found at altitudes between sea level and about 1,400 m (4,600 ft). Biology edit morphos are diurnal, as males spend the mornings patrolling along the courses of forest streams and rivers. They are territorial and chase any rivals.
Morphos typically live alone, excluding in the mating season. The genus Morpho is palatable, but some species (such. Amathonte ) are very strong fliers; birds—even species which are specialized for catching butterflies on the wing—find it very hard to catch them. 10 The conspicuous blue coloration shared by most Morpho species may be a case of Müllerian mimicry, 11 or may be 'pursuit aposematism'. 12 The eyespots on the undersides of the wings of both males and females may be a form of automimicry in which a spot on the body of an animal resembles an eye of a different animal to deceive potential predator or prey species,.
The eyes of morpho butterflies are thought to be highly sensitive to uv light, so the males are able to see each other from great distances. Some south American species are reportedly visible to the human eye up to one kilometer away. Also, a number of other species exist which are tawny orange or dark brown (for instance. Some species are white, principal among these being. An unusual species, fundamentally white in coloration, but which exhibits a stunning pearlescent purple and teal iridescence when viewed at certain angles, is the rare. Some Andean species are small and delicate (.
Among the metallic blue morpho species,. Rhetenor stands out as the most iridescent of all, with. Cypris a close second. Cypris is notable in that specimens mounted in entomological collections exhibit color differences across the wings if they are not 'set' perfectly flat. Celebrated author and lepidopterist Vladimir Nabokov described their appearance as "shimmering light-blue mirrors". 9 Sexual dimorphism edit The blue morpho species exhibit sexual dimorphism. In some species (for instance onis,. Rhetenor only the males are iridescent blue; the females are disruptively colored brown and yellow. In other species (for instance.
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The iridescent lamellae are only present on the dorsal sides of their wings, leaving the ventral resumes sides brown. The ventral side is decorated with ocelli (eyespots). In some species, such. Godarti, the dorsal lamellae are so thin that ventral ocelli can peek through. While not all morphos have iridescent coloration, they all have ocelli. In most species, only the males are colorful, supporting the theory that the coloration is used for intrasexual communication between males. The lamellae reflect up to 70 of light falling on them, including any ultraviolet.
Specifically, the microscopic scales covering the morpho's wings reflect incident light repeatedly at successive layers, leading to interference statement effects that depend on both wavelength and angle of incidence/observance. 7 Thus, the colors appear to vary with viewing angle, but they are actually surprisingly uniform, perhaps due to the tetrahedral (diamond-like) structural arrangement of the scales or diffraction from overlying cell layers. The wide-angle blue reflection property can be explained by exploring the nanostructures in the scales of the morpho butterfly wings. 8 These optically active structures integrate three design principles leading to the wide-angle reflection: alternative lamellae layers, Christmas tree-like shape, and zigzag pattern of the ridges. The reflection spectrum is found to be broad (about 90 nm) for alternating layers and can be controlled by varying the design pattern. The Christmas tree-like pattern helps to reduce the directionality of the reflectance by creating an impedance matching for blue wavelengths. In addition, the zigzag pattern of ridges destroys the unwanted interference for other wavelengths in wide angle. This structure may be likened to a photonic crystal. The lamellate structure of their wing scales has been studied as a model in the development of biomimetic fabrics, dye-free paints, and anticounterfeit technology used in currency.
also been divided into subgenera. Hundreds of form, variety, and aberration names are used among Morpho species and subspecies. One lepidopterist 3 includes all such species within a single genus, and synonymized many names in a limited number of species. Two other lepidopterists 4 use a phylogenetic analysis with different nomenclature. Other authorities accept many more species. 5 Etymology edit The genus name morpho comes from an Ancient Greek epithet μορφώ, roughly "the shapely one for Aphrodite, goddess of love and beauty. Coloration edit Iridescent colors of Morpho butterflies are caused by the specific nanostructures on their wings ( sem image at the bottom). 6 Many morpho butterflies are colored in metallic, shimmering shades of blues and greens. These colors are not a result of pigmentation, but are an example of iridescence through structural coloration.
The name morpho, meaning "changed" or "modified is also an epithet. Contents, species edit, this list is arranged alphabetically within species groups. Subgenus, iphimedeia, species group hercules, species group hecuba Species group telemachus Subgenus Iphixibia subgenus plan Cytheritis Species group sulkowskyi species group lympharis Species group rhodopteron Species group portis Morpho portis (Hübner, 1821) Morpho thamyris. Felder, 1867 Thamyris morpho or as a subspecies. Portis Species group zephyritis Species group aega Species group adonis Subgenus Balachowskyna subgenus Cypritis Species group cypris Species group rhetenor Subgenus Pessonia species group polyphemus Morpho luna butler, 1869 or as subspecies Morpho polyphemus luna morpho polyphemus Westwood, 1850 (Polyphemus) white morpho Species group catenaria. Menelaus Morpho didius Hopffer, 1874 giant blue morpho or as a subspecies. Menelaus Morpho godarti (Guérin-Méneville, 1844) godart's morpho or as a subspecies. Menelaus Morpho menelaus (Linnaeus, 1758) menelaus blue morpho subgenus Morpho Species group deidamia morpho deidamia (Hübner, 1819) deidamia morpho morpho granadensis Felder and Felder, 1867 Granada morpho or as a subspecies.
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This article is about the genus. For particular species, see. For the electronic security company, see. The morpho butterflies comprise many species of, neotropical butterfly under the genus, morpho. This genus includes over 29 accepted species and 147 accepted subspecies, found mostly in, south America, mexico, and. 1, morpho wingspans range from.5 cm (3.0 in) for. Rhodopteron to shmoop 20 cm (7.9 in) for,. Hecuba, the imposing sunset morpho.