State the topic of your report clearly and concisely, in one or two sentences: quick Intro reference. Must have: Purpose of the experiment, important background and/or theory, may include: Description of specialized equipment. Justification of experiments importance, example: The purpose of this experiment was to identify the specific element in a metal powder sample by determining its crystal structure and atomic radius. These were determined using the debye-sherrer (powder camera) method of X-ray diffraction. A good introduction also provides whatever background theory, previous research, or formulas the reader needs to know. Usually, an instructor does not want you to repeat the lab manual, but to show your own comprehension of the problem. For example, the introduction that followed the example above might describe the debye-sherrer method, and explain that from the diffraction angles the crystal structure can be found by applying Braggs law. If the amount of introductory material seems to be a lot, consider adding subheadings such as: Theoretical Principles or Background.
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Each condition was tested in mission six randomized trials. The lines to be adjusted were tipped with outward pointing arrows of varying degrees of pointedness, whereas the standard lines had inward pointing arrows of the same degree. Results showed that line lengths were overestimated in all cases. The size of error increased with decreasing arrowhead angles. For line orientation, overestimation was greatest when the lines were horizontal. This last is contrary to our expectations. Further, the two factors functioned independently in their effects on subjects point of subjective equality. These results have important implications for human factors design applications such as graphical display interfaces. The introduction is more narrowly focussed than the abstract. It states the objective of the experiment and provides the reader with background to the experiment.
Quick Abstract Reference, must have: Purpose. Key result(s most significant point of discussion, major conclusion. May include: Brief method, brief theory, restrictions: one british page 200 words max. Sample Abstract, this experiment examined the effect of line orientation and arrowhead angle on a subjects ability to perceive line length, thereby testing the müller-lyer illusion. The müller-lyer illusion is the classic visual illustration of the effect of the surrounding on the perceived length of a line. The test was to determine the point of subjective equality by having subjects adjust line segments to equal the length of a standard line. Twenty-three subjects were tested in a repeated measures design with four different arrowhead angles and four line orientations.
Discussion, conclusion, references, appendices, further reading. The title page needs to contain the name of the experiment, the names of lab partners, and the date. Titles should be straightforward, informative, and less than ten words (i.e. Not Lab #4 but Lab #4: Sample Analysis using the debye-sherrer Method). The Abstract summarizes four essential aspects of the report: the purpose of the experiment (sometimes expressed as the purpose of the report key findings, significance and major conclusions. The abstract often also includes a brief reference to theory or methodology. The information should clearly enable readers to decide whether they need to read your whole report. The abstract should be one paragraph of 100-200 words (the sample below is 191 words).
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Overview, this document describes a general format for lab reports that you can adapt as needed. Lab reports are the most frequent kind of document written in engineering and can count for as much as 25 of a course yet little time or attention is devoted to how to write them well. Worse yet, each professor wants something a little different. Regardless of variations, however, the goal of lab reports remains the same: document your findings and communicate their significance. With that in mind, we can describe the reports format and basic components. Knowing the pieces and purpose, you can adapt to the particular needs of a course or professor. A good lab report does wallpaper more than present data; it demonstrates the writers comprehension of the concepts behind the data.
Merely recording the expected and observed results is not sufficient; you should also identify how and why differences occurred, explain how they affected your experiment, and show your understanding of the principles the experiment was designed to examine. Bear in mind that a format, however helpful, cannot replace clear thinking and organized writing. You still need to organize your ideas carefully and express them coherently. Typical Components, title page, abstract, introduction. Methods and Materials (or Equipment experimental Procedure, results.
If you were not assigned to write a complete conclusion, write a sentence or two describing what you learned about the scientific concept of the lab by doing the lab. Abstract, an abstract is a miniature version of the whole lab report. It typically consists of one-sentence summaries (sometimes two sentences) of each of the major sections of the report: Introduction, methods, results, discussion, and Conclusion. These sentences are arranged in a block paragraph. If you are asked to write only an abstract of your lab, follow the directions for each lab report section on this page starting with Methods, but for each section, write only the one-sentence option (not the complete section option).
Then put your sentences together in a block paragraph in the proper order: Introduction, methods, results, discussion, and Conclusion. For more help on writing an Abstract, click here. Give your lab report a title. A good title captures what is important about the lab, including the scientific concept the lab is about and variables involved, the procedure, or anything else that is useful for describing what this report is about. For more help writing the title, click here. References If you were asked to include the references in your report, click here for help.
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If you were not assigned to write a complete methods section, then write a sentence bill or two summarizing the procedure you followed for this lab. Results, if you were assigned to write a complete results section, click here for help. If you were not assigned to write a complete results section, then write a sentence or two summarizing the overall findings of this lab. Introduction, if you were assigned to write a complete Introduction, click here for help. If you were not assigned to write a complete Introduction, then write a sentence or two that (1) tells what scientific concept you are supposed to be learning about by doing the lab and (2) states your original hypothesis for the lab, that is, what. Discussion, if you were assigned to write a complete discussion section, click here for help. If you were not assigned to write a complete discussion section, then write a sentence saying whether or not your original hypothesis was supported by the results you found. Conclusion, if you were assigned to write a complete conclusion, click here for help.
results, Introduction, discussion, conclusion, Abstract, title, and References. For each section you are assigned to write in full, click on the link, which will take you to a guide that leads you step by step through writing that section. (you may also click on the appropriate section tab in the index icon on the left side of this page.). After you have finished writing that section, come back to this page to continue writing the rest of your report. For each section you are not assigned to write in full, just write a sentence or two summarizing that section (follow the directions in each section.). When you have finished all the sections, rearrange them in the proper order to turn in to your teacher: Title, abstract, Introduction, methods, results, discussion, conclusion, and References (if it is assigned). Methods, if you were assigned to write a complete methods section, click here for help.
Temperature versus pressure, as measured by the transducers. Temperature versus pressure, as calculated from the ideal gas equation. Your teacher has asked you to write a lab report that focuses on one or more sections of the standard lab report. This webpage is designed to help you write that report. Your report will have one or more complete sections—the section or sections assigned to you—but it will also have very brief summaries for each of the other sections of the lab report. So your lab report will have all the sections—Introduction, methods, results, discussion, conclusion—but with hotel only a sentence or two in the sections that were not assigned. Directions for using this page to write a partial lab report:. Be sure that you know which section or sections you were assigned to write in full.
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This appendix presents the data, calculations, and graphs from the experiment to literature verify the ideal gas equation. The first two columns of Table a-1 show the measured voltages from the pressure transducer and the temperature transducer. Column three shows the measured values of pressures calculated from the following calibration curve for the pressure transducer:.3087(VV) -.1176V.7276 where v equals the voltage output (volts) from pressure transducer, and p equals the absolute pressure (kPa). Column four presents the measured values of temperature (K) calculated from the calibration curve for the thermocouple: t t ref, v/S where t ref equals the ice bath reference temperature (0c v equals the voltage (volts) measured across the thermocouple pair, and s equals the. Finally, column 5 presents the ideal values of temperature for the corresponding measured values of pressure. These ideal values arise from the ideal gas equation (PVmrt). Figure a-1 shows the graph of temperature (K) versus pressure (kPa) for the measured case. Figure a-2 shows the graph of temperature versus pressure for the ideal case. Data From Experiment, voltage pres (V) Voltage temp (V) Pressure meas (kPa) Temperature meas (K) Temperature ideal (K).32.0011.90 298.94 312.17.39.0020 102.81 320.32 321.28.78.0031 119.82 346.26 374.44.31.0046 145.04 381.64 453.24.17.0052 138.14 395.79 431.69.35.0064.